The history of design has seen it evolve and change over time, both under the influence and experience of art movements as well as technical and material-related developments. Design perception and understanding have led to changes in form and meaning (Bielefeld and Khouli 2010, 2010). The increasing competition and globalization in design has made it a hot topic in many fields, from individual products to the service industry. Baudrillard (2002, p. 3) stated that today’s meaning is more important that the product’s value. Designers have taken a multi-disciplinary approach to design and began to collaborate with engineers as well as with other professionals such graphic designers and communication specialists to create a variety in design.
Following the Industrial Revolution in De Stijl, we see a close connection between architecture and art. This is evident in Bauhaus movement where many art branches, such as sculpture and handicraft, can be found together. (Fielden, Geoffrey, 1963). Nesting architectural design and art creates conceptual integrity according to spatial identity. This conceptual integrity has been realized through graphic design. It is responsible for creating identity, information transfer and deepening the meaning of space. Graphic design has become a prominent discipline in recent years, beyond billboards and advertising displays. It is now able to give architecture and the environment identity through spatial and environmental information transfer.
2.Graphic Design and Historical Development
Identity is any quality that identifies an entity or makes it unique from other entities of the same type. Identity refers to the way that an entity expresses its self. Image is formed in the perception and memory of others.
Graphic design is a vital discipline and art that provides visual communication. Graphic design is also an artistic tool that provides information and messages to the user, cutting unnecessary corners. In architecture, designers use space to communicate a message. This is why architecture, which can be discussed at different scales in a physical environment that is designed for the user will yield its results in collaboration with interior architecture, industrial designs, and graphic design.
Cave drawings that date back to ancient times, the Paleolithic era, and 14000 B.C. can be considered as the first graphic works by humans. They use art as a means of communication. The Industrialization, the invention of photography and establishment of the printing press led to graphic products such as posters, catalogues, and graphic designs being first created by painters. Pictorial features were prioritized over typographic ones. Graphic design is now a distinct discipline due to the evolution of printing techniques.
Graphic design was distinguished from painting art at the end of 18th century by the advent of book designs. The Bauhaus School’s innovative reactive design approaches to art and design helped it develop quickly. In order to attract, popularize, and increase awareness, the efforts to give space an identifiable identity through image- and perception-based design gained momentum. This is even true for building typologies that serve different purposes than the retail industry. Semiotics, which can be found within the conceptual infrastructure of Post-Modern cultures, has also helped to make these types of buildings more attractive. This period has seen graphic expressions that use symbols to communicate, in contrast with the simplicity of modern architecture, become more important in architectural and environmental design.
Venturi and other designers who embrace Post Modernism, symbolic architecture, and consider architecture the main system that reaches out to society, has adopted symbolic architecture. You can increase diversity by combining various functions in order to enhance the message transfer and achieve identity transfer. Architectural design has taken note of brand-identity images, which are subjects in graphic design. By using symbol, photo collage, illustration or pictogram, spatial meaning can be transferred.
Graphic design is a visual art form that relies on visual perception. This technology has been developed over the past few years to transfer meaning. Uses and options of graphic design are diversified beyond the ordinary thanks to digital technology and interactive surfaces, which are also motion/user/environment sensitive, smart glass technologies with different levels of transparency, LED that gives wide range of opportunities especially in illumination and last but not least OLED technologies which are still developing.
3.The Relationship Between Visual Perception and Spatial Design – graphic Design
Architecture is not just about eyesight, as the design can create visual differences that can be seen by the user. However, it can also involve other senses. It can also be used to link us with time and space. (Pallasmaa, 2005), (Anderson, J., 2011). Many architects use design methods to find new forms. These design methods allow architects to transcend the established patterns and canons. The space can transmit messages to users through interdisciplinary collaboration using tangible, abstract and audio-visual aspects. It is possible to see interdisciplinarity in the transfer of identity-related meaning in design.
Figure 1. Interdisciplinarity in the transfer of identity-related meanings in design.
Sensory data is information that humans receive from the environment to form perception. In terms of perception of natural and artificial environments, visual sense is more efficient than the auditory, smell, and tactile senses. Graphic design is a great tool for communicating the identity and offering solutions that are in line with the spatial functions. The final design is not only functional but can also be differentiated by the visual richness and artistic identity that it gives to the space.
Individuals have different visual perceptions. The design will convey the message through the perception of cultural, psychosocial, and personal experiences. The space’s boundaries are important in the graphic design. They create a visual identity and make the space stand out. The shell of the space is made up of walls, floors and horizontal planes. Other architectural elements that contribute to visual identity include vertical circulation instruments linking different planes, and reinforcement elements.
Faulkner states that walls are surfaces that create volume in volume by their division function according to the relation between graphic and spatial design. This is where spatial graphic is most commonly used. Depending on the materials used, walls can be transparent, opaque, semi-transparent, or variable transparent. They play an active role in describing the space with expressions like privacy-openness, transparency-closeness, dividedness or unity.
Vertical surface characteristics must be considered during graphic design to ensure integrity. Windows and doors are vertical surfaces that are designed to open into space. Graphic design determines how the message will be transmitted. Functionalities that are added to vertical planes such as information boards/ panels, exhibitions, or planes for storage purposes must be consistent with the architectural design integrity. This is not only for graphic design, but also for the technology and materials used.
Floors and coverings are surfaces that are used extensively in spatial graphics to provide continuity, flow, and guidance when different materials or elevation are being compared. They are also in close contact with the user, such as walls. As shown in Figures 3 & 4, graphic prints can be extended partially to the walls or ceilings. This creates a guiding or restrictive effect. The human field of vision is 40 degrees on the horizontal and vertical axes. Architectural elements such as floor, ceiling, and wall are important surfaces that can have an impact on design. They can also be used to guide; graphic design can be used to effectively create a defined identity-related image.
The purpose of vertical circulation instruments such as stair, ramp, and elevator is to provide continuity and guidance between floors and elevations. They can also be used for graphic design that emphasizes the above mentioned goals.
Vertical circulation elements can be used for both functional and aesthetic purposes. Figure 5 shows information/messaging transfer for different vertical circulation elements such as stairs, elevators, and escalators.
Reinforcement elements can be fixed or moving, horizontal/vertical/inclined in the field of view, at low or high levels. Reinforcements elements are colored and given texture. They also play an active part in creating a message that matches the identity of the user in terms graphic design.
The use of visual images such as photos, illustration and typography, to emphasize the message and space identity that the designer has created on all planes, reinforcement elements and spatial graphic design compositions, shall be carefully discussed with the goal of achieving successful visual communication.
The relationship between architecture and graphic design has changed dramatically as a result of the rapid development in technology being incorporated into architectural elements to transfer meaning. Figure 7 shows variations of the relationship between architectural elements that will transmit the identity-related message through graphic design tools.
Mobile digital or fixed print arrangements can be made on two-dimensional planes by using a photo with enough resolution, sufficient light, and a strong graphic vocabulary. This is used in spatial design to affect visual perception.
Illustrations are another example of graphic work that can be used to identify a space. Illustrations are a common way to express yourself artistically that can be understood by all regardless of culture and language. It strengthens the relationship between space and users.
Typography, which creates volume using letters and lines, can be either one- or three-dimensional. They are an essential part of space identity transfer and play a key role in graphic design.
Pictogram can be defined as an international symbol that represents a concept, object, or function. It is made up of graphic drawings and can be used to communicate messages. It can be used to convey the intended image in memory by the user in both its esthetic and practical aspects. Figure 8 shows a variety of graphic design work on architectural elements like photo, illustration and pictogram.
Today, we can see that design is open to multiple disciplines and works. Architecture is a place of interaction and experience. It is not just a functional artistic production with its aesthetic, esthetic, and design features, but also a physical environment, and a living space, where corporate identity works can be transferred to the user.
The life span of a space is longer than the lives of its users and actions. While the physical existence of spaces that have served different purposes over time and served different users remains the same, the messages or communication they transmit change with time. It is one of the most important tools for meaning transfer because the experience provided by the space directly influences the image. This covers a variety of design issues and addresses a range of topics such as the relationship between space and the outer environment, reinforcement elements for inner space, color and lighting designs, and graphic expressions. This concept is the basis of all design decisions.
It is important to discuss the relationship between architecture and graphic design with a holistic approach when reflecting the corporate identity in the space. This interdisciplinary collaboration will help give the space an identity. Throughout history, interdisciplinary design has always been successful.
Interdisciplinary will allow a designer to better reflect his/her talents on the space. It will also help the designer see the world from a wider perspective. This will enrich the design process and give designers the opportunity to create new experiences through spatial communication.